Sarcastically referred to as the "Woolworth Gun",
the Liberator Pistol's actual name was the "Flare Projector" Caliber
.45 (FP-45). A single-shot pistol, the Liberator was designed to be
scattered about occupied Europe to be used by Resistance groups as
disposable assassination weapons or to enable resisters to kill a
German soldier and then take his weapon.
The Liberator even had a role in psychological
warfare as it was known that German soldiers would find the guns all
over the countryside and immediately recognize that they would
become the targets of determined resisters.
There is little agreement between Historians as
to the origins and use of the Liberator Pistol. While it appears in
the classified OSS weapons catalog, there is little proof that the
pistols were ever dropped into occupied Europe in large quantities
although they were certainly in use in occupied France. There is
more evidence that the Liberator played a significant role in the
hands of Philippine guerillas against the Japanese.
The Liberator is believed to have been created
and produced by the American Office of Strategic Services (OSS),
later to become the CIA. Even the name of the gun is subject to
argument. One source
that the name Liberator was coined after the gun was no longer
confidential but the June 1944 OSS Weapons Catalog, which is marked
"Confidential" lists this gun under the name "Liberator."
The Liberator was produced by the Guide Lamp
Division of General Motors over a six-month period of 1942. Guide
Lamp didn't know anything about making pistols, but they knew a lot
about making things out of sheet metal, and that's exactly how the
Liberator was made. The production cost was $2.10 each.
Approximately one million pistols were produced
in only eleven weeks, meaning that 300 workers produced a pistol
with 23 parts every 6.6 seconds, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, for
11 weeks. This is the only pistol that could be made faster than it
could be loaded, which takes about 10 seconds.
The pistol was packed in a paraffin-coated
cardboard box with ten rounds of .45 ACP ammunition, a wooden stick
for poking out empties and a set of graphic instructions. For
collectors the "comic-strip" instruction sheet and the paperboard
shipping box are actually many times more valuable than the guns
themselves. As a result fakes are more often found in the
marketplace than the genuine item.
The pistol looks like something out of a
low-budget spy movie. It is manually operated with a sliding breech
and a hand-cocked striker. After a shot is fired and the breech
opened, the empty case was ejected by poking the supplied wooden
stick (or anything suitable) down the barrel. The butt is hollow,
with a sliding base-plate, to store the extra ammunition.
most Liberators were destroyed after the war. As a result, when the
CIA wanted something similar for use in Vietnam, they had to design
and build a replacement, known as the "Deer Gun." (right) Apparently
little to no learning goes on at the CIA because most Deer Guns were
also destroyed after the war. As a result Deer Guns are much less
common than Liberators.
lists the Liberator's value in the US at $450 to $1000 depending
upon condition. The author has seen Liberators selling from
$600-$750 in Canada.
Liberator Pistol Courtesy of Mr. Rob Harrison.
OSS Special Weapons & Equipment, H Keith Melton, 1991.
The CIA Deer Gun in Vietnam,
Small Arms Review, Jan
Blue Book Publications,
The Liberator Pistol, Ralph Hagan, 1996.